without inlet guide vanes and with a shroudlessbacksuept impeller, a vaned The complete design of a high-performance centrifugal compressor involves. Figure Flow lines for optimised compressor design (recirculation removed). Figure Pressure coefficient distribution over diffuser vane at varying spans . of the centripetal-flow fan at design operating conditions can reach % and , respectively, of the centripetal compressor from the point of view.

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The fourth parameter, specific speed, is very well known and useful in that it removes diameter. Also termed the Navier—Stokes equationsthis fundamental is derivable from Newton’s vsne law when applied to fluid motion.

As a result, less flow reverses over the rotor tips and the impeller gains becomes again efficient. Compared to estimating performance which is very cost effective thus useful in designtesting, while costly, is still the most precise method. Turbomachinery analysts gain tremendous insight into performance by comparisons of these 5 parameters with efficiencies and loss coefficients which are also dimensionless.

Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. Below, is a partial list of centrifugal compressor applications each with a brief description of some of the general characteristics possessed by those compressors. This of course would mean the two turbomachines being compared are geometrically similar and running at the same operating point.

Centrifugal compressor – Wikipedia

The first law of thermodynamics is the statement of the conservation of energy. General standard practice is to interpret these efficiencies xesign isentropic rather than polytropic. In this case, the occurrence of choke is unlikely.

Most turbomachines are designed to easily withstand occasional surging. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Additionally, it would generate no operating noise, and have a long life while operating in any environment. Centrifugal compressors are similar in many ways to other turbomachinery and are compared and contrasted as follows:. They provide for the creation of additional relationships being dimensionless found valuable in the characterization of performance. According to a form of Euler ‘s fluid dynamics equation, known as the pump and turbine equationthe energy input to the fluid is proportional to the flow’s local spinning velocity multiplied by the local impeller tangential velocity.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The classical ideal gas law may be written:. A partial list of turbomachinery that may use one or more centrifugal compressors within the machine are listed here.

Studying these two plots further we see that the pressure rises between the compressor inlet station 1 and compressor exit station 2. Surge – is a flow phenomenon at low mass flow rate operation for which the impeller cannot add enough energy to overcome the system resistance or backpressure. Centrifugal compressors are also similar to centrifugal fans of the style shown in neighboring figure as they both increase the flows centripeetal through increasing radius.

For example, centrifugal compressors used for large air conditioning systems water chillers use a refrigerant as a working gas that cannot be modeled as an ideal gas. The variety of pressure measurement units is also vast. It may be found interesting that the specific speed coefficient may be used in place of speed to define the y-axis of Figure 1.

Most modern high efficiency impellers use “backsweep” in the blade cokpressor. Retrieved 23 April Cut-away of a centrifugal pump.

Centrifugal compressor

It may be found interesting that the speed coefficient may be chosen to define the y-axis of Figure 1. This material would be easy to machine or cast and inexpensive. These occurrences can damage the rotor seals, rotor bearings, the compressor driver and cycle operation. Hybrid versions of vaned diffusers include: In general application, the flow coefficient and head coefficient are considered of primary importance.

This location may occur at the impeller inlet “throat” or at the vaned diffuser inlet “throat”. Fluid Mechanics fifth edition. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Centrifugal compressors. The deterioration of the flow angles causes the impeller to be inefficient and less flow is delivered downstream.


A simple centrifugal compressor has four components: At the same time, it is easy to see that the specific volume decreases or similarly the density increases. A 3D-solids model of a type of centrifugal pump. The inlet to a centrifugal compressor is typically a simple pipe. Thereby, the plenum downstream of the impeller is emptied and the back pressure drops. Unfortunately, we are missing several other key pieces of information if we wish to apply the centrifugal compressor to another application.

In this case, it can be assumed that the inlet temperature is sea-level standard. Fluid Mechanics of Turbomachinery in two volumes. In many industrial applications it may be necessary to increase the stall line due to the system backpressure. This third definition is applicable with strict limitations.

The horizontal axis represents the energy equation derivable from The first law of thermodynamics. The above equation is known as the fundamental thermodynamic relation.

Solving this one-dimensional problem is still valuable today and is often termed mean-line analysis. For the example below Head will be substituted for pressure and sonic velocity will be substituted for elasticity. However, if the machine is forced to surge repeatedly for a long period of time, or if it is poorly designed, repeated surges can result in a catastrophic failure.

For this reason it is only necessary to summarize that in the ideal case, the lowest specific fuel consumption would occur when the centrifugal compressors peak efficiency curve coincides with the gas turbine’s required operation line.

Confusion arises through either inaccuracies or misuse of pressure, temperature and gas constants.