The pathophysiology of anemia and the basis of its clinical investigation. Pruebas que evalúan el estado del hierro: Hierro del compartimiento funcional: Ferremia: Capacidad total de saturación de hierro (CTSH). Transcript of Clasificacion de anemias. Disminución de la capacidad transportadora de oxigeno de la sangre. Adaptaciones fisiológicas.
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Clasificacion de anemias by Carolina Isabel Guifarro Salgado on Prezi
In the case of hemolysis which takes place in the bloodstream rather than in the RESso-called intravascular hemolysisadditional biochemical phenomena are observed see diagram, below.
Unconjugated bilirubin is not water soluble and therefore will not be excreted in the urine, despite its elevation in the serum. The normoregenerative anemias are in contrast to those characterized by inadequate marrow response to the degree of anemia.
Therefore, in young male adults and in both sexes older than 65 years, the most likely cause of IDA is chronic bleeding, especially from gastrointestinal lesions[ 67 ].
Generally, anemia must be fairly severe hemoglobin IV. National Health Laboratories; This se caused by alteration of bone marrow progenitor cells, which can be located at different stages of differentiation and maturation. The next step is the calculation of reticulocyte clasifixacion index RPI: Its prevalence is 1.
The physicochemical properties of hemoglobin and biochemical housekeeping in the erythrocyte are both in their purview, but what hematologists contend with at the grossest level is anemia. There are several lab tests that allow you to determine if increased rbc turnover exists: The strategy for establishing a diagnosis of anemia by gastroenterologists must follow a classic pattern that lcasificacion a clinical interview, a basic physical examination, and careful selection of complementary tests.
The MCH concentration MCHC reports on the average concentration of hemoglobin in each erythrocyte expressed as a percentage normal range: In men and postmenopausal women, the bigger concern should be to rule out the presence of occult bleeding. When progenitor red cells are impaired selectively, bone marrow erythroblasts are much reduced or absent, while other hematological cellular lines remain clasoficacion.
Acute hemolysis is characterized by sudden episodes with very obvious clinical signs fever, chills, back pain, dark urine and typical laboratory data hemoglobinuria and reduced plasma haptoglobin [ 16 ]. These parameters coasificacion the diagnosis of borderline patients who, at another time, would have undergone unnecessary investigation of iron in the bone marrow[ 30 – 32 ].
The WHO criterion has been accepted widely for diagnosis and publication, but its universal application has been questioned mainly because of racial differences.
Classification of anemia for gastroenterologists
Clinical signs and symptoms of anemia When the above mechanisms are overwhelmed by the increasing magnitude of the anemia, or when the demands of physical activity or intercurrent illness overwhelm them, a clinical disease state becomes apparent to the physician and to the patient. If this is true, the story of pathology is the story of hypoxia.
Clinical signs of a slowly developed anemia are pallor, tachycardia, and a systolic ejection murmur. Most anemia is related to the digestive system by dietary deficiency, malabsorption, or chronic bleeding. An increased number of reticulocytes is seen when the marrow is churning out rbc’s at excessive speed presumably to make up for those lost to hemolysis or hemorrhage. The prevalence is emphasized in all sections so that the gastroenterologist can direct the diagnosis to the most common diseases, although the tables also include rare diseases.
Activation of cytokines and the reticuloendothelial system induces changes in iron homeostasis, erythroid precursor proliferation, erythropoietin secretion, and erythrocyte life span[ 43 ]. With these key data, the doctor can put in place more specific tests: In consequence, several gastrointestinal diseases, hereditary or acquired, including surgical resection, clasifidacion produce nutritional deficiency anemia.
In these circumstances, normal serum methyl-malonic acid levels, in the absence of anemiax errors of metabolism or renal failure, preclude a deficiency of vitamin B12[ 51 ].
It should be noted that, although there are many adjustments that can be made, one that cannot is decrease in clasificacioj tissue requirement for oxygen. Keep in mind that if anemia develops through rapid enough bleeding, the hematocrit and hemoglobin will be normal since in hemorrhage the rbc’s and plasma are lost in proportion. This clasificacoon when there is rapid hemorrhage, with red cells and plasma being rapidly lost simultaneously, before the body can respond by hiking up the plasma volume.
Am J Clin Nutr. Epidemiologia Se estima que la incidencia de la pitiriasis clasifucacion es de alrededor de por In such cases, both terms can be used interchangeably[ 49 ]. Journal List World J Gastroenterol v.
However, when the hemoglobin decreases and the bone marrow does not have regenerative capacity, the expected increase in reticulocytes fails, despite the increase in erythropoietin plasma level hypo-regenerative anemia [ 12 ]. In these cases, the erythropoiesis is abnormal morphologically and functionally.
Anemia may exist as a laboratory finding in a subjectively healthy individual, because the body can, within limits, compensate for the decreased red cell mass. We review the World Health Organization definition of anemia, its morphological classification microcytic, macrocytic and normocytic and anemiss classification regenerative and hypo regenerativeand integration of these clasjficacion. In these cases, it is difficult to confirm the diagnosis and additional testing is required: Evaluation of microcytic anemia.
Pancytopenia may be caused by intrinsic [bone marrow aplasia, leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome MDS or myelofibrosis] or extrinsic metastasis, Gaucher disease and other thesaurismosis, tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, viral and parasitic infections.